Rabu, 05 November 2014

The first car in the steam car powered by a steam engine

it is said to be a Kyunyonohosha the French Army of technology captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot was produced in 1769. This car because it was difficult to swivel front wheel load is too heavy, even though did not come out only an hour about three kilometers, it became the first issue of a car accident and collides with the wall during commissioning the Paris city. Urban and as a regular bus from around 1827 in the UK, widely used across the city, in around 1860, I came to be also used in France. In 1885, steam car by flash boiler that France of Leon Serubore was mounted on an automobile in the development and 1887 was reduced by the time can start at 2 minutes. In the United States around 1900, a steam car using oil made instead of coal, went further spread. This time it was easy there is little noise operation than the gasoline car is more of steam car. In the United States had been sold steam car until the late 1920s.

Locomotive Acts in England in 1865 came into force. At that time popular started was steam car, which is hostile and surprise the road the damage horses, red flag laws governing this by the pressure of the residents has been established. By this law, steam car in the suburbs per hour 4 miles (6.4km / h), the city is limiting the speed in mph two miles (3.2km / h), in order to notice in humans and animals, have a red flag pedestrian is no longer necessary to lead. Production of steam car in the UK, the development is made to be stagnant until 1896 that this red flag law is abolished, also in the development of the gasoline car that followed it, would that Germany and France are leading.


1870, the first gasoline automobile "first Marx car" was invented by Jewish Austrian Siegfried Marcus (Siegfried Samuel Marcus). 1876, when creating an internal combustion engine (gasoline engine) that Nikolaus Otto of Germany to work in gasoline, is attached to a motorcycle and carriages Gottlieb Daimler is to improve this, it was running test. Patents by Daimler has been issued in 1885. 1885, Karl Benz of Germany, separately to improve the engine and Daimler, made a three-wheeled car that was designed from the vehicle body. Benz Mrs. drove the car by itself, proved to be a vehicle that can be operated as long training other than the manufacturer. Benz to create the first car dealer, has sold hundreds of the produced automobile. In addition, Daimler also caused the car company. Currently, the inventor of the gasoline-type vehicles are often with both Daimler and Benz.

Initial of car are those which very expensive for a handmade, only nobles and wealthy it was something that can be owned. And they were thought to be a race in a car that we have. Was active in the early automobile race that took place in this time is the Renault to be active in F1 today. This time is also still steam and electric vehicles not only gasoline car is running considerable number, but which car was not even the fact that mainstream, gasoline car to victory in the steam car in a car race in France in 1897, 1901 while the oil is found supplied gasoline is stabilized in the US Texas and years, electric vehicles and steam vehicles it is not possible to exceed the gasoline in structural problems, rapid decline in the early 20 century went


In 1908, Ford launched the Ford · T type. Ford has adopted a mass production method due to the flow work succeeded in reducing the price of the car. The car was a possession of the wealthy by this, is possible and become the automotive industry that the public is owned and became a pioneer of big development. In Europe around 1910, so as to satisfy the desire for vehicle masses, motorcycle parts and technical compact, lightweight vehicle which is manufactured by using a so-called cycle car began to spread. In 1922, a small popular cars such as the Citroen · 5CV and Austin Seven with Ford and similar production methods have been released, it became a full-fledged that car is going to spread. In addition, Cyclecar Along with it will be to go disappeared.

There is also a car that was powered electric vehicles and fuel cells, the former is also a vehicle that exists as a trolley bus even now.

The public vehicles spread of the T-Ford, the public becomes possible to own a car, when the car is widespread, social around the car along with it come to be formed, automobile will become the necessities of life, so-called motorization has occurred. First time motorization was going on in the world is located in the United States of the 1920s, then also occur in Western European countries, a full-fledged motorization began in around 1970 in Japan. Spread of personal automobiles, leads to a far higher degree of freedom to the user than the times that relied on public transportation such as railways and ships, has become to greatly expand the individual behavior radius.


History of shared
The presence of vehicles that weigh heavy cost to the owner, owners want to take advantage without, the idea is there from the very old, still era car did not, for example, even in ancient Rome, as the modern taxi carriages also a method of using a metered type also referred to was that was present [4]. The 1620 loan horse-drawn carriage industry appeared in France (so to speak, hit the modern car rental), in 1662 invented the 5 Sol of horse-drawn carriage that Blaise Pascal is the first ever bus began operations in Paris, the allusion to leave when the context and background to the fact that it will be appreciated well. About it in the automotive history, 1831 to Goldsworthy Gurney is, I like that Walter Hancock has started the operation of the colectivo in the car of a steam jet in the same year. In 1871 the invention of taxi meter by Wilhelm Bruhn of the Germans, in 1897 Gottlieb Daimler has manufactured the first with the meter taxi (gasoline vehicles) Daimler Victoria world. Although the oldest of history is not clear of the rental car, the first car rental suppliers in the United States, it is sometimes referred to as, was open from 1916 with the Ford Model T, which is the first production car. Man Joe Saunders of Nebraska that is the first car rental skilled in the art, that lent in attachment 1 mile per 10 cents of method the meter to the car [5]. Modern times came to be carried out also car sharing, etc. Switzerland in the 1970s, and spread to countries around the world until now, forms to be used without owning a car has been diversified.

History of privately owned
May be called a Pseudo-anglicism the "Car" vehicles that privately owned in Japan. The first privately owned boom the world has been caused by the mass production of Ford of T-type vehicles. Individuals can now owns the car sales price can be reduced by mass production. Mass production techniques, was widely allowed to appear division of labor production technique to both concepts, such as conveyor belts, production in society. This is, in human behavior desire is resident in that expensive car began to buy the product for the movement of the unnecessary. Is an action to win things luxury or unnecessary. Increase of income, cause a temporary increase of privately owned automobile. Rapid increase in privately owned car is also referred to as "own car boom". Such as seen an increase in privately owned vehicles [6] in China in recent years, private car boom may be said to have associated with the national economic development.


For more information see the "automotive industry"
One cars single is made of many parts, there is a need for many many also in parts manufacturing personnel and technology. Therefore, it automotive manufacturing industry itself is a major industry, automotive parts and electronic equipment necessary for the production of motor vehicles, including the peripheral areas and material industries such as steel, to purchase parts or materials from every industry, their industrial a I have support. Globally, have since the 1980s, progressing aggregation to multinational corporate group of automotive industry.

Moreover, since the manufacturing number is large in all the world of automobiles, automobile manufacturing is a huge industry, consumers not only automobile manufacturer to see and hear directly, parts (steel and glass that extends to such manufacturers to material and several tens of thousand points of automobile in the beginning, such as seats and electronic equipment, small place in is providing up to one screws), can not be seen directly from the consumer various companies (steel industry, glass industry, synthetic resin manufacturers, electronics manufacturers , until the software manufacturing industry, I have also had an impact on sales of the company) of countless. (Just sales of the housing industry is, I have the same relationship to work with the sales of a large number of companies that supply the materials and parts required for residential construction).


Vigorously when viewed worldwide competition between companies in the automotive industry, such as intensifying and management content worsening and selection of price competition occurs, since the 1980s, are in the aggregate to the multinational group of companies has advanced.

Impact on society
Car gives a lot of benefits to the user, but, on the other hand, it is the presence of violating the fundamental rights of citizens, such as life, health and safety. This loss is one that society as a whole suffers, it is possible to capture the social costs

Cause the car on society, and traffic accident vehicle caused by a self-propelled, vehicle environmental problems due to emissions and noise of the exhaust gases caused by burning the fuel is a major problem. In addition, traffic congestion has produced the economic loss caused by automobile. Car is taken to come to be improved to a high-performance vehicles, it is to be a problem appears who prefer a bad riding how the more driving manners. This is the traffic of development due to modernization, increased user of the motor vehicle rapidly, thereby born the concept of traffic manners by the individual driver, society is also background that came to ask for it.

On the other hand, often it is necessary to large-scale capital investment in manufacturing, as well as the companies and factories, for example, been gathered well as partner companies to form a company town, the economic effect of the location around very it can be said that the large.


Traffic accident problem
The way that the motor vehicle is traveling, because in the city it is intended to be used to be walking person, a case the car would be injurious to the pedestrian occurs. Therefore, to ensure pedestrian and bicycle safety, car is necessary to establish the order and environment for traveling was forced to first. When the car appeared to the public, pedestrians and vehicle traffic space has not been clarified, pedestrian I had to the vehicle is traveling in the walking. At first there was no problem with it, and will increase gradually traffic volume of the car, becomes a collision of pedestrians by motor vehicles is a problem, it has been clearly distinguished Fu that sidewalk and the roadway. To further pedestrian protection in crossing the car increases is no longer ensured, the traffic signal is in place, now car is in place by law. Conditions for such a motor vehicle is traveling has come to be somewhat improvement early in the 20th century, vehicles of large mass motor vehicle passes through the immediate vicinity of pedestrians collide sometimes, many of the people traffic accident has become a still big problem because it is that an accident or death. In addition, pedestrian there is a need for awareness and infrastructure development of the automobile suppression and pedestrian bicycle protection of There is also a pedestrian priority consciousness that is accident ratio for death often compared with other countries. Illegal parking to induce the drunk driving and excessive speed and accidents, traffic crimes such as interference such as pedestrian crossings there is a status quo that has been spread. In addition, light vehicles, such as bicycles knowledge that's the right figure is to run the original roadway, also conspicuous lack of awareness. Traffic accidents killed, including sometimes even car driver himself, there is also a big influence also on the economy by that traffic is impeded.


Environmental issues
Automotive adversely affect the environment. The general automobile is gasoline, fuel become fossil fuels for traveling of an automobile, but mainly emit carbon dioxide during combustion of coal and, particularly nitrogen oxides other than carbon dioxide in poor fuel quality and sulfur such as oxide is I large quantities discharged together with the black smoke. Therefore involvement and air pollution to global warming, it has also been said to cause acid rain, reduction of these emissions, came to be shouted along with the increase of motor vehicles. Nitrogen oxides by effective use and catalysts of the fuel by increasing the fuel economy Thus, the decomposition technique of sulfur oxides have been improved. Furthermore, recently, in order to solve these problems by shifting to hybrid cars and electric cars from gasoline vehicles, many automobile manufacturers have competing to develop, to the purchaser by governments various incentives have come to be taken (in 2012 now). As a fundamental solution, especially in urban areas of developed countries, transfer to a certain effective bicycle-friendly and health promotion to the environment, is also many countries and regions are encouraged take advantage.

Large amounts of the various pollution is a big problem that was said to be noise associated with it and the vibration caused by running not only air pollution in along the road to automobile travel.

And become more like automotive replacement purchases cycle is born, was born also waste disposal problems of old you have finished using car. Is a major problem that the motor vehicle for its recycling.

Impact on public transport
Although public transportation due to the rapid spread and penetration of the automobile had been in decline, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport road station, or to again promote the streetcar maintenance on the friendly road to mass transit can be environment than the car [8] , buses, etc. are also in progress review.


Other issues
Vehicle use crime: the time when the automobile was not in close contact with the living, residential areas and crime area of criminals had to close state. As the car of dissemination, this assumption has already collapsed. Although the also escape from the region who committed the crime other transportation is possible, and that in public transportation is limited zone travel time, (and trains where the camera is installed at the station, the driver witnesses in that may be a taxi, etc.) relationship, such as the difficulty to keep the anonymity and, be criminals that a growing number of those using the car move as a means of if you are away from the area who have committed a crime (vehicle use crime) , it can be confirmed from the police White Paper to be published annually. To this problem, is also included movement by movement or stolen cars on the highway. The problem for measures such as Automatic number plate recognition installation has been performed, but the location for reasons such as that an expensive apparatus is limited, and there are those that attach the cover to hard to see the number , and are not in full measure.

Sports, automobile as a hobby

Car has a variety of models and shapes, also selectively used a variety of automotive applications by. To say that it simply run, there is also such a bad course of conditions not only course that has been developed, there are various ways to enjoy. Such a variety of perspectives to ride the car from, there are many people that like a hobby that you collect. In particular, or one of the main purposes of travel by car in towards the distant resort, round trip to drive only car without deciding the destination generally "drive" [9] or called "long ride" there. Also, it aims to faster time than the scores to steer the automobile is recognized as a kind of sport, called motor sports. Not all be run in the Formula car sport is a dedicated car for running anyway fast, race in commercial vehicles and self-made cars, also, such as endurance race to be a long time of operation, what variety is held in countries around the world to have. Formula 1 (F1) and the IndyCar Series, Racing Games such as Le Mans 24-hour race is a particularly prominent international tournament.


Miniature Car: 1/40 scale
As a hobby, it is not limited to driving the car, miniature of the production and collection of elaborate car called the miniature car, also the wide range such as collection of parts and photos of the shooting. As a hobby related to automobile traveling, there is or hobby that you ride in a variety of automotive, also be the remodeling and maintenance of motor vehicles in the hobby. Also restore a vehicle that has been manufactured in the past called classic car, some enthusiasts to find the saved historical value. In this way, the car does not stay in the presence of only simply to transport people and goods.

Each country emissions by laws in and body size, and are classified by such as transport capacity, tax classification and traffic classification, it is a reference for the classification of driver's license.

In Japan, by the Road Traffic Law Article, large automobile, medium-sized car, ordinary vehicles, large special car, a small special motor vehicles, large motorcycles, and are classified into seven types of ordinary motorcycles, Road Trucking Vehicle Law Article by, ordinary vehicles, small cars, mini-cars, and are classified into large special automotive and small special car.

Structure of the car appeared various forms among its history, has been transition. Here, I indicates the common ones as vehicles are currently available. Thus, some of the cars there are exceptions, such as in particular for racing and tools, there are examples in which the structure is significantly different for those specialized for special applications.
With respect to development in each of the parts section of "Auto maintenance" is detailed

Body structure
Material used in the body of the steel strength members are mainstream, others in recent years using a composite material such as aluminum alloy or carbon fiber reinforced plastic has come to be commercially available. The panel portion of the other frame members are increasingly also examples of using the synthetic resin.
Structure is divided into a frame format and monocoque format can be roughly divided into. Frame format in which the outer shell structure constituting a cabin in a separate frame member is mounted, is used as a body structure of an automobile for a long time and has been employed mainly in trucks today. Monocoque format is a structure in which the outer shell itself was created as a strength member constituting the passenger compartment, it is beginning to spread from the mid-20th century as the body structure of the car, has been adopted in most of the current passenger cars.

Prime mover
Current internal combustion engine is in the mainstream, which uses an electric motor is also mass-produced as a product. In an internal combustion engine, a reciprocating engine such as a diesel engine or a gasoline engine that outputs the reciprocating motion of the piston is converted to rotary motion by a crankshaft is common. There are 4-cycle and 2 cycles 4 cycles each at present has become the mainstream. Although the fuel for spark ignition engines has become the mainstream of the gasoline is used, in some cases for reasons of cost and environmental performance LPG and LNG, alcohol-based fuels are used. In recent years, etc. is difficult and diesel vehicles discharged smoke, hybrid cars, have been widely well as electric vehicles combine an internal combustion engine and an electric motor.


Power, the motor is decelerated by the rotation to the speed suitable for driving the rotational speed exerts efficiently output transmission. Transmission, the driver can be roughly classified into a manual transmission (MT) to be operated by selecting from a plurality of speed reduction ratios, to automatically select or change automatic transmission (AT). MT is the like when switching the basic reduction ratio is required to operate the clutch, those automated clutch operation is called a semi-automatic transmission. In recent years, while having the basic structure of the MT shift operation and the clutch operation is controlled automatically, automatically controlled manual transmissions (AMT) are also becoming popular. For electric vehicles, and employs a transmission range of the effective rotational speed of the prime mover is not switched wide for the reduction ratio, which in most cases do not have a reverse gear so possible to reverse rotation of the engine.

In the case of a manual transmission, the gear ratio of the forward is it generally about 8 stages from four stages, but an example to twice the number of speed stages by using a sub-transmission is not a few to center the freight car.
Automatic transmission, is formed by combining a torque converter and planetary gears are widely used. In Japanese passenger car, adoption example of a continuously variable transmission called CVT has been increasing. In any method, mechanism or to limit the scope of the reduction ratio, such as "L range" by the driver's operation, and a mechanism which can be fixed to any reduction ratio, referred to as "manual mode".

Semi-automatic transmission is in the laws and regulations of Japan is classified as AT cars, in the example of Japanese cars there is a sequential MT of Toyota · MR-S.


Steering devices
Steering is generally the front wheel steering system for turning the vehicle by changing the direction of the front wheels, is called the steering to refer to the entire mechanism. The operation unit I is referred to as a "handle" or "steering wheel". Rotation of the handle is changed to the effect of pressing the wheels via a mechanism such as a ball nut and a rack and pinion on the left and right. In recent years, a power steering to assist the steering operation of the driver by using a hydraulic or electric motors are widely used.

Since turning the better of the inner wheel through the track to draw a small radius of the arc to have to have a difference in steering angle to suit, for example to steer to the right when the direction of the right tire large steering angle and are designed to be. Such a mechanism is referred to as the Ackermann mechanism.

Braking-restraint device
Operation of the brake, which is carried out in the foot-pedal is almost. Force applied to the pedal is transmitted to the brake device via the hydraulic or pneumatic, is pressed against the friction material on the rotating part, to slow down by converting the kinetic energy into thermal energy. Most commercial vehicles, utilizing the negative pressure and air intake pipe of the engine, has a booster which reduces the pedal force.


Parking brake to be restrained to prevent the vehicle body Ugokidasa when parking is often a wire or pneumatic. Is the most common structure to that of braking the brake device in the case of passenger cars, there is a case where the inner periphery of the disk brake for the rare braking and a drum brake for restraining. In cargo vehicles Mission (transmission) is many cases with a mechanism for parking in the examples and the wheels with a drum brake on the output unit.

Downhill, etc., to use too much foot brake fade and Vapor lock occurs, there is the braking force is significantly reduced. Be utilized engine braking in order to prevent these are taught in driver's training, but many models for mounting the exhaust brake and retarder in the effect of engine braking is hard to large freight vehicles obtained.
The braking from high speed, the disc brakes which is excellent in heat dissipation is valid, the braking and the vehicle weight is large, in such parking in gradient, the action of the self-boosting effect, and a large drum brake of binding repayment

Driving device
The driver's seat is intended chair with seat and backrest are mainstream. In front of the driver's seat is the structure of a standard automobile to handle the accelerator pedal and brake pedal for steering or clutch pedal, is provided. Handle is circular but generally, also rod-like handle was present in the Three-wheeler. In recent years, some models that employ handle oval. Equipment to operate the parking brake, but those of the method to raise the lever is the mainstream, and some of the schemes to attract cane-shaped lever of the front of the vehicle body from the back to the front in old trucks and a minivan. Also, in recent years now be adopted push-button that operates and those electrical foot-in. The operating lever of the transmission shift lever in case of MT, in the case of AT called the select lever. Either side of the driver's seat when the, the floor shift which is installed on the floor of the vehicle body center side dominate. Old taxis and trucks, were also many exist MT of column shift that was installed the shift lever on the steering column in one box car. In the current AT vehicle model with the select lever to the steering column has become a thing not unusual around the minivan. In recent years, there are many things you have to place the selector lever on the instrument panel.


Service industries
Car can go in different locations can be transported people and goods, and if the road even been developed. Therefore service industry exists wide using a car. And form "to do something in the car" can be broadly divided into this, there is a "to do something to the car" form.

Examples of the former are referred to the service in general to do the passenger transport and freight transport and transportation industry. If a passenger taxi or hire, also be operated as such as a bus, the bus because it is possible to transport a lot of personnel, bus, tourist bus, high-speed bus, such as a variety of regular tourist bus depending on the form I have. For freight transport me to transport shipping company is using the track. It is not the provision of direct transport services, but also car rental and car lease to rent a car.

The latter example is the automotive industry maintenance to perform maintenance of the automobile.